Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Oxamniquine: An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Neuroschistosomiasis: SCHISTOSOMIASIS of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges caused by infections with trematodes of the genus SCHISTOSOMA (primarily SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM; SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI; and SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM in humans). S. japonicum infections of the nervous system may cause an acute meningoencephalitis or a chronic encephalopathy. S. mansoni and S. haematobium nervous system infections are associated with acute transverse myelitis involving the lower portions of the spinal cord. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp61-2)Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Echinostoma: A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.Bulinus: A genus of small freshwater snails of the order Pulmonata, found throughout Africa and the Middle East, where it is a vector of SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Hycanthone: Potentially toxic, but effective antischistosomal agent, it is a metabolite of LUCANTHONE.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.BrazilSchistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)Mice, Inbred CBALarva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Splenic DiseasesSenegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Schistosomatidae: A family of blood flukes of the class Trematoda which is found in animals and man. It Includes the genera Heterobilharzia, Schistosomatium, Schistosoma, Ornithobilharzia, Bilharziella, Trichobilharzia, Pseudobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Nitroquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Plasma Cell Granuloma, Pulmonary: A tumor-like inflammatory lesion of the lung that is composed of PLASMA CELLS and fibrous tissue. It is also known as an inflammatory pseudotumor, often with calcification and measuring between 2 and 5 cm in diameter.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Niclosamide: An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.