Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Landslides: Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.BrazilParasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.IndiaBangladeshFood Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
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