Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Hemoglobinuria: The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Urobilinogen: A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
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