Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC 220.127.116.11.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pyrimidine Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Deoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsThioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Methylthioinosine: 6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)UridineNucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.PyrimidinonesArabinonucleosides: Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Vidarabine Phosphate: An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Uridine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.GuanineEquilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Thionucleosides: Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Deoxycytidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 18.104.22.168.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 22.214.171.124.PentosephosphatesPentostatin: A potent inhibitor of ADENOSINE DEAMINASE. The drug induces APOPTOSIS of LYMPHOCYTES, and is used in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Dilazep: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.Inosine NucleotidesRibose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 126.96.36.199.Adenine NucleotidesHypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 188.8.131.52.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Coformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 184.108.40.206.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Arsenite Transporting ATPases: Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 220.127.116.11.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.ThymidineModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Ribose-Phosphate Pyrophosphokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate from ATP and ribose-5-phosphate. EC 18.104.22.168.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases: A family of nucleotide diphosphate kinases that play a role in a variety of cellular signaling pathways that effect CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS. They are considered multifunctional proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins and have functions that are unrelated to their enzyme activity.Didanosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Cytosine NucleotidesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Receptors, Purinergic P1: A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).PyrrolidinesBrevibacterium: A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 22.214.171.124.Pyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amidophosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme, involved in the early steps of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, that catalyzes the formation of 5-phosphoribosylamine from glutamine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. EC 126.96.36.199.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Phosphoribosylglycinamide Formyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from N10-formyltetrahydrofolate to N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide to yield N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide and tetrahydrofolate. It plays a role in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Uracil NucleotidesOligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydroxymethyl and Formyl Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide Formyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide to 5-formyl-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide in the purine de novo synthesis pathway. It requires the cofactor N(10)-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE as the formyl donor.