Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Protein S Deficiency: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Protein C Deficiency: An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Factor VIIIa: Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Activated Protein C Resistance: A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Imidoesters: Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antithrombin III Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Myxococcales: An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Calgranulin B: A 13.2-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN A and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin B is expressed at high concentrations in GRANULOCYTES during early monocyte differentiation, and serum calgranulin B levels are elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as CYSTIC FIBROSIS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Calgranulin A: A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Emetine: The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors: Substances, usually endogenous, that act as inhibitors of blood coagulation. They may affect one or multiple enzymes throughout the process. As a group, they also inhibit enzymes involved in processes other than blood coagulation, such as those from the complement system, fibrinolytic enzyme system, blood cells, and bacteria.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
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