Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Neuroleptanalgesia: A form of analgesia accompanied by general quiescence and psychic indifference to environmental stimuli, without loss of consciousness, and produced by the combined administration of a major tranquilizer (neuroleptic) and a narcotic.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Belladonna Alkaloids: Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Benperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of aberrant sexual behavior. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p567)Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Isonipecotic AcidsConscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
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