Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Colonography, Computed Tomographic: A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Intestinal Polyposis: The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Colonoscopes: Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Colon, Ascending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Gardner Syndrome: A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
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