Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Pneumothorax, Artificial: Injection of air or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the PLEURAL CAVITY to collapse the lung.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Mediastinal Emphysema: Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Subcutaneous Emphysema: Presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues of the body.Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome: Autosomal dominant neoplastic syndrome characterised by genodermatosis, lung cysts, spontaneous and recurrent PNEUMOTHORAX; and RENAL CANCER. It is associated with mutations in the folliculin protein gene (FLCN protein).Pneumopericardium: Presence of air or gas in the space between the heart and the PERICARDIUM. The degree of respiratory distress depends on the amount of trapped air and circulation blocked in the systemic and pulmonary veins.Hemopneumothorax: Collection of air and blood in the pleural cavity.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Barotrauma: Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.Hydropneumothorax: A collection of fluid and gas within the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a normal QRS complex. In this syndrome, the atrial impulse conducts via the JAMES FIBERS which connect the atrium to BUNDLE OF HIS bypassing the upper ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. HEART VENTRICLES are depolarized normally through the His-Purkinje system.Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: A disease characterized by the progressive invasion of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS into the LYMPHATIC VESSELS, and the BLOOD VESSELS. The majority of the cases occur in the LUNGS of women of child-bearing age, eventually blocking the flow of air, blood, and lymph. The common symptom is shortness of breath (DYSPNEA).Pulmonary Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the lung.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pleural DiseasesParacentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Pleural Cavity: Paired but separate cavity within the THORACIC CAVITY. It consists of the space between the parietal and visceral PLEURA and normally contains a capillary layer of serous fluid that lubricates the pleural surfaces.Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A number of small lung lesions characterized by small round masses of 2- to 3-mm in diameter. They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). Such nodules can be associated with metastases of malignancies inside or outside the lung, benign granulomas, or other lesions.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Eosinophilic Granuloma: The most benign and common form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis which involves localized nodular lesions predominantly of the bones but also of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, lungs, or skin, with infiltration by EOSINOPHILS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.