Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Pneumonia, Lipid: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Murine pneumonia virus: A species of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS causing pneumonia in mice.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal: A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Pneumocystis carinii: The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Chlamydial Pneumonia: Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Pneumovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS, an important cause of respiratory disease in humans.Pneumocystis Infections: Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pneumonia, Rickettsial: Pneumonia caused by infection with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.Confusion: A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Cilastatin: A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle: A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Paramyxoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.Mannheimia haemolytica: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Mycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Actinomycetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.TracheitisStaphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Adenoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.United StatesAcinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Rhodococcus equi: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.JapanAcinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiratory Aspiration: Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Pneumonia of Calves, Enzootic: Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLPractice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Sheep, Bighorn: A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Psittacosis: Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Mice, Inbred BALB CBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.