Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 188.8.131.52.CresolsCatechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.Thauera: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 18.104.22.168.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 22.214.171.124.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.HydroquinonesBenzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)NitrophenolsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 126.96.36.199.Nails, Ingrown: Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.
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