Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Hand-Assisted Laparoscopy: Placement of one of the surgeon's gloved hands into the ABDOMINAL CAVITY to perform manual manipulations that facilitate the laparoscopic procedures.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Pyelonephritis, Xanthogranulomatous: A chronic inflammatory condition of the KIDNEY resulting in diffuse renal destruction, a grossly enlarged and nonfunctioning kidney associated with NEPHROLITHIASIS and KIDNEY STONES.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.CreatinineBlood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Operative Time: The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Ureteral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETERS.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Angiomyolipoma: A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Learning Curve: The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.