Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Mouth FloorMouth DiseasesMouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Enterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Mouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Trismus: Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Enterovirus InfectionsYawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Taste Disorders: Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Oral Ulcer: A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Ranula: A form of retention cyst of the floor of the mouth, usually due to obstruction of the ducts of the submaxillary or sublingual glands, presenting a slowly enlarging painless deep burrowing mucocele of one side of the mouth. It is also called sublingual cyst and sublingual ptyalocele.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Stomatitis, Aphthous: A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Oral Submucous FibrosisHyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Tongue DiseasesPovidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Ulmaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.Nail Biting: Common form of habitual body manipulation which is an expression of tension.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Nasolabial Fold: A skin crease on each side of the face that runs from the outer corners of the nose to the corner of the mouth. It is a common site of PLASTIC SURGERY.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Coxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Tongue Habits: Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Fingersucking: Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.Mouth Rehabilitation: Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Surgical Tape: A flat, flexible strip of material used to cover or fasten together damaged tissue.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the nose, and the throat, also known as the ENT diseases.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Lip DiseasesTemporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Eyebrows: Curved rows of HAIR located on the upper edges of the eye sockets.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.