Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Sulfite Oxidase: A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Molybdoferredoxin: A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Metal Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsFormate Dehydrogenases: Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Azotobacter vinelandii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sulfite Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of sulfite to sulfate along with the reduction of FERROCYTOCHROME C to FERRICYTOCHROME C.Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Desulfovibrio gigas: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacteria originally isolated from a saltwater pond in France. It contains a well-characterized metabolic pathway that enables it to survive transient contacts with OXYGEN.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Metalloexopeptidases: EXOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Tracheobionta: A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Nitrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.