Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Polyplacophora: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of flattened, elongated marine mollusks, commonly called chitons. They are unique in that they possess seven or eight separate shell plates.Nautilus: The sole genus in the family Nautilidae, order Nautilida, comprised of CEPHALOPODS with spiral external shells that are separated into chambers.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Perna: A genus of freshwater mussel in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. It is found in tropical and warm temperate coastal waters. Most species have green in their shells.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Atlantic OceanEchinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.BrazilBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
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