Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Proctoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Spisula: A genus of surf clams in the family Mactridae, class BIVALVIA. They are often used in EMBRYOLOGY research.Lasers, Gas: Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery: Surgical procedures performed through a natural opening in the body such as the mouth, nose, urethra, or anus, and along the natural body cavities with which they are continuous.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Vasovasostomy: Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Replantation: Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.