Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Gastritis, Atrophic: GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Cardia: That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Duodenitis: Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mucin-6: A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly associated with the gastric epithelium.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Chief Cells, Gastric: Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Esophagogastric Junction: The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Gastric Mucins: Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Keratin-20: A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Helicobacter felis: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
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