Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Receptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.Receptor, Melatonin, MT1: A melatonin receptor subtype that is primarily found in the HYPOTHALAMUS and in the KIDNEY.Receptor, Melatonin, MT2: A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to N-acetylserotonin to form N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (MELATONIN).Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.KynuramineAntioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.5-Methoxytryptamine: Serotonin derivative proposed as potentiator for hypnotics and sedatives.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.
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