Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Rats, Inbred F344Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 220.127.116.11.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.