Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Longitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Broad Ligament: A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.Round Ligament: A fibromuscular band that attaches to the UTERUS and then passes along the BROAD LIGAMENT, out through the INGUINAL RING, and into the labium majus.Lateral Ligament, Ankle: LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Spiral Ligament of Cochlea: A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Lunate Bone: A moon-shaped carpal bone which is located between the SCAPHOID BONE and TRIQUETRUM BONE.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Knee Dislocation: Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.Ganglion Cysts: Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.DislocationsWeight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Carpometacarpal Joints: The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Joint DiseasesFibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Inguinal Canal: The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Exostoses: Benign hypertrophy that projects outward from the surface of bone, often containing a cartilaginous component.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal: A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.ElastinCollagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Tooth Mobility: Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.