Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Tooth Permeability: The property of TEETH to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the teeth by microorganisms.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Thulium: Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.Benzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.Phosphorus Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Neurilemma: The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride: A sodium fluoride solution, paste or powder, which has been acidulated to pH 3 to 4 and buffered with a phosphate. It is used in the prevention of dental caries.
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