Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Joint DiseasesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Knee Dislocation: Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.ArthritisQuadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Hydrarthrosis: Accumulation of watery fluid in the cavity of a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Popliteal Cyst: A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.AmputeesAnterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Joint Capsule Release: Surgical procedure to relax the JOINT CAPSULE tissues in a joint that has a reduced range of motion due to CONTRACTURE or TISSUE ADHESIONS or joint deformities.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.DislocationsCarpometacarpal Joints: The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mice, Inbred DBADisability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
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