Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Epiretinal Membrane: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A visual impairment characterized by the accumulation of fluid under the retina through a defect in the retinal pigment epithelium.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Astemizole: Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Angioid Streaks: Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).