Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Teaching Rounds: Systematic discussions and teaching relating to patient care.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.United StatesCross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Hospitals, AnimalFaculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.EnglandInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Great BritainBed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.BrazilAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.LondonEducation, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.IndiaGuideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Personnel Administration, Hospital: Management activities concerned with hospital employees.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Formularies, Hospital: Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Housekeeping, Hospital: Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)ScotlandAnesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Tertiary Healthcare: Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.Day Care: Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.CaliforniaGeneralization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.