GlucosidesGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Thioglucosidesbeta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Amygdalin: A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Verbena: A plant genus of the family VERBENACEAE. Members contain verbenachalcone (dimeric dihydrochalcone), iridoids, and phenylethanoids.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.Rheum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE. Members contain chrysophanic acid, rhein, EMODIN, and other ANTHRAQUINONES. The roots were formerly used as PURGATIVES.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Bidens: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain bidensyneosides (polyacetylene glucosides).Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Scrophulariaceae: The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.Dioscoreaceae: The yam plant family, of the order Liliales, has thick roots or tubers and net-veined, heart-shaped leaves that sometimes are lobed.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.PicratesPlants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.ThioglycosidesFlavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Malva: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE, order Malvales, subclass Dilleniida. The common name of 'Mallow' may sometimes get confused with other plants.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Petasites: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain SESQUITERPENES. The common name of sweet coltsfoot is similar to the common name for TUSSILAGO.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.MethylglycosidesJasminum: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides and this is the source of oil of jasmine.Solanum melongena: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.PyransNitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.MethylglucosidesGlucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Limonins: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.TriterpenesMolecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Balanophoraceae: A plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are root parasites lacking CHLOROPHYLL.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.ArbutinChromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Curculigo: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains curculin and cycloartane saponins.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Cucurbitacins: Triterpenes that derive from LANOSTEROL by a shift of the C19 methyl to the C9 position. They are found in seeds and roots of CUCURBITACEAE and other plants and are noted for intense bitterness.Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsPolyacetylenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one triple bond; or an oxidized form of POLYENES. They can react with SULFUR to form THIOPHENES.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Sterculiaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Veronica: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bis-sesquiterpene and iridoid glucosides.Ajuga: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains cyasterone, ajugasterone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 8-acetylharpagide (an iridoid glycoside).Shallots: Mildly aromatic herb in the Allium genus used in SPICES.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carum: A plant genus of the family Apiaceae. The seeds are used as flavoring.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Sinomenium: A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain sinomenine, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, and other ALKALOIDS.Gentiana: A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Combretum: A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Triterpenes and combretastatin have been identified in members of this genus.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Dilleniaceae: A plant family of the order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)