Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Giant Cell Arteritis: A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Granuloma, Giant Cell: A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.Carcinoma, Giant Cell: An epithelial neoplasm characterized by unusually large anaplastic cells. It is highly malignant with fulminant clinical course, bizarre histologic appearance and poor prognosis. It is most common in the lung and thyroid. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.Giant Cells, Langhans: Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages) seen in granulomatous inflammations such as tuberculosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and deep fungal infections. They resemble foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN BODY) but Langhans giant cells contain less chromatin and their nuclei are arranged peripherally in a horseshoe-shaped pattern. Langhans giant cells occur frequently in delayed hypersensitivity.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Foreign-Body Reaction: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.Chondroblastoma: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Cherubism: A fibro-osseous hereditary disease of the jaws. The swollen jaws and raised eyes give a cherubic appearance; multiple radiolucencies are evident upon radiographic examination.Giant Cells, Foreign-Body: Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Gingival DiseasesFemoral NeoplasmsMyocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Tuberous Sclerosis: Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Histiocytes: Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mandibular DiseasesEpithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular: Outgrowths of synovial membrane composed of villi and fibrous nodules characterized histologically by hemosiderin- and lipid-containing macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. It usually occurs in the knee.Maxillary DiseasesHistiocytoma, Benign Fibrous: A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Spinal NeoplasmsSacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous: The most commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma. It is a neoplasm with a fibrohistiocytic appearance found chiefly in later adult life, with peak incidence in the 7th decade.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Jaw Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE unspecified. For neoplasms of the maxilla, MAXILLARY NEOPLASMS is available and of the mandible, MANDIBULAR NEOPLASMS is available.Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Cathepsin K: A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fibrin Foam: A dry artificial sterile sponge of fibrin prepared by clotting with thrombin a foam or solution of fibrinogen. It is used in conjunction with thrombin as a hemostatic in surgery at sites where bleeding cannot be controlled by more common methods. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p648)Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Polyarteritis Nodosa: A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Tuberculoma: A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Fasciitis: Inflammation of the fascia. There are three major types: 1, Eosinophilic fasciitis, an inflammatory reaction with eosinophilia, producing hard thickened skin with an orange-peel configuration suggestive of scleroderma and considered by some a variant of scleroderma; 2, Necrotizing fasciitis (FASCIITIS, NECROTIZING), a serious fulminating infection (usually by a beta hemolytic streptococcus) causing extensive necrosis of superficial fascia; 3, Nodular/Pseudosarcomatous /Proliferative fasciitis, characterized by a rapid growth of fibroblasts with mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferating capillaries in soft tissue, often the forearm; it is not malignant but is sometimes mistaken for fibrosarcoma.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Solanum glaucophyllum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that causes CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1a,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (CALCITRIOL).Osteoma: A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mimiviridae: A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.Adie Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279)Aortitis: Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Odontogenic Tumors: Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Granuloma, Respiratory Tract: Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE involving only one bone.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Photomicrography: Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone: A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial: Neoplasms composed of fibrous and epithelial tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue or epithelium.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Skin DiseasesPolychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable: Sterile, gelatin-base surgical sponge applied topically as an adjunct to hemostasis when the control of bleeding by conventional procedures is ineffective to reduce capillary ooze or is impractical. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p797)Angiofibroma: A benign neoplasm of fibrous tissue in which there are numerous small and large, frequently dilated, vascular channels. (Stedman, 25th ed)Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary: Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile: Benign disorder of infants and children caused by proliferation of HISTIOCYTES, macrophages found in tissues. These histiocytes, usually lipid-laden non-Langerhans cells, form multiple yellow-red nodules most often in the skin, the eye, and sometimes in the viscera. Patients appear to have normal lipid metabolism and are classified as a normolipemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis.Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adrenal Cortex HormonesCraniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Receptors, Calcitonin: Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Jaw DiseasesLung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Rats, Inbred LewKeratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Ecchymosis: Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.HemosiderinMydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)UTP-Glucose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Naphthol AS D Esterase: Hydrolytic enzyme activity used as a histocytochemical test for the presence of esterases in tissue. Substrate used is 3-hydroxy-4'-nitro-2-naphthanilide chloroacetate (naphthol AS-D).Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.