Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Postgastrectomy Syndromes: Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Gastroenterostomy: A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.Gastric Stump: That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.Esophagostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Duodenostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Dumping Syndrome: Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Vagotomy, Truncal: Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.Anastomotic Leak: Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.Duodenogastric Reflux: Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Duodenoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the duodenum.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Surgically-Created Structures: Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Surgical Staplers: Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).