Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Radius FracturesBone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Rib FracturesSkull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Intra-Articular Fractures: Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Colles' Fracture: Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Periprosthetic Fractures: Fractures around joint replacement prosthetics or implants. They can occur intraoperatively or postoperatively.Bone Diseases, MetabolicWrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Clavicle: A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.DislocationsFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Jaw Fractures: Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Kyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Bone Marrow DiseasesOsteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".AxisDental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Hemiarthroplasty: A partial joint replacement in which only one surface of the joint is replaced with a PROSTHESIS.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Monteggia's Fracture: Fracture in the proximal half of the shaft of the ulna, with dislocation of the head of the radius.Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.OsteomyelitisTitanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)