Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Foot Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.Foot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Flatfoot: A condition in which one or more of the arches of the foot have flattened out.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Forefoot, Human: The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.Arthropathy, Neurogenic: Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Hammer Toe Syndrome: A condition characterized by a series of interrelated digital symptoms and joint changes of the lesser digits and METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINTS of the FOOT. The syndrome can include some or all of the following conditions: hammer toe, claw toe, mallet toe, overlapping fifth toe, curly toe, EXOSTOSIS; HYPEROSTOSIS; interdigital heloma, or contracted toe.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Hallux Limitus: A bony proliferation and articular degeneration of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT that is characterized by pain and a progressive decrease in the dorsiflexion range of motion.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Subtalar Joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.Foot Ulcer: Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hand Deformities, Acquired: Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: A condition characterized by a broad range of progressive disorders ranging from TENOSYNOVITIS to tendon rupture with or without hindfoot collapse to a fixed, rigid, FLATFOOT deformity. Pathologic changes can involve associated tendons, ligaments, joint structures of the ANKLE, hindfoot, and midfoot. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired flatfoot deformity in adults.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalThoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.ShoesOrthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.Ear Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the ear caused by disease or injury after birth.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Funnel Chest: A developmental anomaly in which the lower sternum is posteriorly dislocated and concavely deformed, resulting in a funnel-shaped thorax.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Genu Valgum: An inward slant of the thigh in which the knees are close together and the ankles far apart. Genu valgum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasias (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; HURLER SYNDROME); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Hallux: The innermost digit of the foot in PRIMATES.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)