Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chamomile: Common name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.PicratesEpimedium: A plant genus of the family BERBERIDACEAE which is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL. Members contain flavonol glycosides including epimedins, icariin and noricariin.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Scutellaria baicalensis: A plant species of the genus SCUTELLARIA, family LAMIACEAE, that contains skullcapflavone and is used in CHINESE HERBAL DRUGS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.ChalconeGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Primulaceae: A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The flowers have both stamens and pistil, and the fruits are capsules.Biphenyl CompoundsChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Eriocaulaceae: A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Rutaceae: A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.Hydroxyethylrutoside: Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Bidens: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain bidensyneosides (polyacetylene glucosides).Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Ginger: Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Hippophae: A plant genus of the family ELAEAGNACEAE. Linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acids (18:3n-3) comprised about 70% of seed oil fatty acids. This is unrelated to 'artificial sea buckthorn oil'. This genus does not belong to the buckthorn family (RHAMNACEAE).Morus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Bauhinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.Rhamnaceae: The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.Scopolia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE after which the compound SCOPOLAMINE HYDROBROMIDE got its name.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Millettia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.Andrographis: A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)GlucosidesMethanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Thymelaeaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.Dalbergia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members of this genus can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Artemisia annua: A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Tephrosia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains tephrorin, tephrosone, and C-prenylflavonoids.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Diosmin: A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.Combretum: A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Triterpenes and combretastatin have been identified in members of this genus.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Melissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Chromolaena: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Cynara scolymus: A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Rhus: A plant genus of the family Anacardiaceae, order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae. It is a source of gallotannin (TANNIC ACID) and of somewhat edible fruit. Do not confuse with TOXICODENDRON which used to be part of this genus.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Ilex: A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Agrimonia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that has been used in folk treatment of diabetes. Members contain agrimoniin (TANNINS).Malpighiaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Loranthaceae: The showy mistletoe plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. This includes parasitic tropical plants with haustoria connecting to the hosts. The leaves are opposite and thick. The flowers (4-7) have both calyx and corolla. The fruit is a berry with one seed.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Viscum: A plant genus in the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Species of this genus contain cytotoxic LECTINS. The common name of MISTLETOE is used for many species of this and the LORANTHACEAE families.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Vernonia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Butea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains butrin and isobutrin.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Caesalpinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.Polypodiaceae: The fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta.
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