Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Fibrinopeptide B: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the beta chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin. Each peptide chain contains 20 amino acid residues. The removal of fibrinopeptides B is not required for coagulation.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Receptors, Fibrinogen: Receptors that bind FIBRINOGEN through distinct adhesive sequences on the fibrinogen molecule. Although MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN is considered an important signaling molecule for fibrinogen interaction, a variety of INTEGRINS from all three major families, (beta1, beta2, and beta3) have been shown to bind fibrinogen.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Clot Retraction: Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Factor XIIIa: Activated form of FACTOR XIII, a transglutaminase, which stabilizes the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) culminating the blood coagulation cascade.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Fibrin Clot Lysis Time: A measurement of the time needed for FIBRINOLYSIS to occur.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
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