Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Placental Function Tests: Methods used for the assessment of placental function.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Fetal Resorption: The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Fetofetal Transfusion: Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).United StatesAttitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.New YorkPregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.GeorgiaPregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.CaliforniaParity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.WashingtonRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Denmark