Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Femoral Neuropathy: Disease involving the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve may be injured by ISCHEMIA (e.g., in association with DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES), nerve compression, trauma, COLLAGEN DISEASES, and other disease processes. Clinical features include MUSCLE WEAKNESS or PARALYSIS of hip flexion and knee extension, ATROPHY of the QUADRICEPS MUSCLE, reduced or absent patellar reflex, and impaired sensation over the anterior and medial thigh.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Pudendal Nerve: A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and innervates the PERINEUM, the external GENITALIA, the external ANAL SPHINCTER and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Obturator Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Ureterostomy: Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Hip Contracture: Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. (From Current Medical Information & Technology, 5th ed)Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Pirinitramide: A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Compartment Syndromes: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.
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