Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.EthersEthyl EthersHalogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Crown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether: A substance that is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract and may be carcinogenic.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.tert-Butyl AlcoholVinyl CompoundsHydrocarbons, BrominatedMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)AcetalsChromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)EstersEpoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.PropaneFatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Pyran Copolymer: Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Dihematoporphyrin Ether: The purified component of HEMATOPORPHYRIN DERIVATIVE, it consists of a mixture of oligomeric porphyrins. It is used in photodynamic therapy (HEMATOPORPHYRIN PHOTORADIATION); to treat malignant lesions with visible light and experimentally as an antiviral agent. It is the first drug to be approved in the use of PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY in the United States.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.KetonesOximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.ButanesChemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cissus: A plant genus of the family VITACEAE. Cissus rufescence gum is considered comparable to TRAGACANTH.Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Rhizomelic: An autosomal recessive form of CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis and impaired peroxisomes. Patients have shortened proximal limbs and severely disturbed endochondral bone formation. The metabolic defects associated with the impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. (From Scriver et al, Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 6th ed, p1497)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedPhospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Allyl CompoundsAgrocybe: A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.CyclopropanesAldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hematoporphyrins: Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
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