Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal: Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.Capsule Endoscopes: A pill sized videocamera encased in a capsule. It is designed to be swallowed and subsequently traverse the gastrointestinal tract while transmitting diagnostic images along the way.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Gastroscopes: Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.Colonoscopes: Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Neuroendoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures related to NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. There are two broad categories of neuroendoscopes, the rigid scope and the flexible scope, for various types of procedures.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Neuronavigation: Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.Cystoscopes: Endoscopes for visual examination of the urinary bladder.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Sigmoidoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the sigmoid colon.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Esophagoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the esophagus.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery: Surgical procedures performed through a natural opening in the body such as the mouth, nose, urethra, or anus, and along the natural body cavities with which they are continuous.Hysteroscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the uterus.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Carmine: Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
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