Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.United StatesFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.HumanitiesEducation, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Great BritainLaboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.BrazilProblem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Schools: Educational institutions.Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.IndiaProfessional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Osteopathic Physicians: Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
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