Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.History of DentistryDentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Military Dentistry: The practice of dentistry as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.State Dentistry: Control, direction and financing of the total dental care of the population by a national government.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Dentists, Women: Female dentists.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Tooth DiseasesDiagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Mouth DiseasesSchool Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Occupational Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with maintaining oral health of employees in occupational environments.National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It seeks to improve oral, dental and craniofacial health through research, research training, and the dissemination of health information by conducting and supporting basic and clinical research. It was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Dental Research and re-named in 1998 as the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Philosophy, DentalRoot Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Mouth Rehabilitation: Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Delegation, Professional: The process of assigning duties to a subordinate with lesser qualifications.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.NebraskaSpecialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedDental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.United StatesCredentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Ethics, Business: The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.Lip DiseasesCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.MuseumsTokyoBehavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Denturists: Individuals who fabricate and fit DENTURES without the supervision of DENTISTS. (from Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 27th ed) They may or may not have formal education in health sciences, but are well versed in the art of constructing dentures.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Dental High-Speed Technique: Dental methods involving the use of DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Occlusal Adjustment: Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental High-Speed Equipment: Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.FormocresolsJournalism, Dental: Content, management, editing, policies, and printing of dental periodicals such as journals, newsletters, tabloids, and bulletins.Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Pharmaceutical Preparations, Dental: Drugs intended for DENTISTRY.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.KentuckyDental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Time Management: Planning and control of time to improve efficiency and effectiveness.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.