Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Hydroxocobalamin: Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH2 Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of or oxidation of compounds containing primary amines.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.MethemoglobinPseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.CobamidesAntimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Amygdalin: A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ninhydrin: 2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.PeroxidasesElectron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.