Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Oral Medicine: A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.United StatesMentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Schools: Educational institutions.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.NevadaEducation, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.HumanitiesWebcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.ManikinsSpeech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Interdepartmental Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutional departments.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Pathology, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with pathology of the oral cavity.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.IndianaCertification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Pharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.OhioBehavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Libraries, MedicalComputer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Denture, Overlay: Removable prosthesis constructed over natural teeth or implanted studs.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.ArizonaObstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
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