Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Surgical Stomas: Artificial openings created by a surgeon for therapeutic reasons. Most often this refers to openings from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the ABDOMINAL WALL to the outside of the body. It can also refer to the two ends of a surgical anastomosis.Sigmoid Diseases: Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Rectovaginal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Fournier Gangrene: An acute necrotic infection of the SCROTUM; PENIS; or PERINEUM. It is characterized by scrotum pain and redness with rapid progression to gangrene and sloughing of tissue. Fournier gangrene is usually secondary to perirectal or periurethral infections associated with local trauma, operative procedures, or urinary tract disease.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Intestinal Volvulus: A twisting in the intestine (INTESTINES) that can cause INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Rectal Prolapse: Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Anus, Imperforate: A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Perineum: The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Surgical Staplers: Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Abdominal Wound Closure Techniques: Methods to repair breaks in abdominal tissues caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions during abdominal surgery.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Hirschsprung Disease: Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.Sigmoid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SIGMOID COLON.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cecostomy: Surgical construction of an opening into the CECUM with a tube through the ABDOMINAL WALL (tube cecostomy) or by skin level approach, in which the cecum is sewn to the surrounding PERITONEUM. Its primary purpose is decompression of colonic obstruction.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Proctoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.Ostomy: Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Rectal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.Prolapse: The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.