Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Colonoscopes: Specially designed endoscopes for visualizing the interior surface of the colon.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Colonography, Computed Tomographic: A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Occult Blood: Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Colitis, Ischemic: Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Splenic RuptureColon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Diverticulosis, Colonic: A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Capsule Endoscopy: Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Simethicone: A poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is a polymer of 200-350 units of dimethylsiloxane, along with added silica gel. It is used as an antiflatulent, surfactant, and ointment base.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Colitis, Lymphocytic: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Ileocecal Valve: The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.Capsule Endoscopes: A pill sized videocamera encased in a capsule. It is designed to be swallowed and subsequently traverse the gastrointestinal tract while transmitting diagnostic images along the way.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Colitis, Microscopic: A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.RomaniaRectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Colitis, Collagenous: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Intestinal Polyposis: The growth of INTESTINAL POLYPS. Growth processes include neoplastic (ADENOMA and CARCINOMA) and non-neoplastic (hyperplastic, mucosal, inflammatory, and other polyps).Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Guaiac: Resin from wood of certain species of GUAIACUM. It is used as clinical reagent for occult blood.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Patient Navigation: The process of helping patients to effectively and efficiently use the health care system when faced with one or more of these challenges: (1) choosing, understanding, and using health coverage or applying for assistance when uninsured; (2) choosing, using, and understanding different types of health providers and services; (3) making treatment decisions; and (4) managing care received by multiple providers.Double-Balloon Enteroscopy: Endoscopy of the small intestines accomplished while advancing the endoscope into the intestines from the stomach by alternating the inflation of two balloons, one on an innertube of the endoscope and the other on an overtube.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Physicians, Primary Care: Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)