Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Arthrogryposis: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Subtalar Joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
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