Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)ChloraminesDisinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Swimming PoolsOxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Mesoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Giardia: A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)