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Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Chloranil: A quinone fungicide used for treatment of seeds and foliage.Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.HydroquinonesUbiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Lactams, Macrocyclic: LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Azirines: Unsaturated azacyclopropane compounds that are three-membered heterocycles of a nitrogen and two carbon atoms.Leukemia L5178: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.Triaziquone: Alkylating antineoplastic agent used mainly for ovarian tumors. It is toxic to skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and kidneys.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Rifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.ResorcinolsOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)PeroxidasesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.