Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Vernonia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.Artemisia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.Tagetes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.Erigeron: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is similar to CONYZA. Members contain SESQUITERPENES.Tragopogon: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The root and shoots have been used for food.Centaurea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain 5-methyl-8-hydroxycoumarin. The common name of centaury is more often used for CENTAURIUMBidens: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain bidensyneosides (polyacetylene glucosides).Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Helichrysum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CHALCONE, helichrysetin, arenarin, and flamin.Mikania: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.Aster Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).Sonchus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides (SESQUITERPENES) have been found in it.Arctium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Echinops Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain a pseudoguaiane sesquiterpene. San-fang-feng is the root of E. grijisii used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Taraxacum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain chicoric and chlorogenic acids and germacrane- and eudesmane-type SESQUITERPENES.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Crepis: A plant genus in the ASTERACEAE family.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).SesquiterpenesOils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Eupatorium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Ingestion has been associated with MILK SICKNESS. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including CHROMOLAENA; Hebeclinium, and Koanophyllon.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.CycloheptanesPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Saussurea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE, order Asterales, subclass Asteridae. It is a source of costus root oil and should not be confused with the genus COSTUS.Artemisia annua: A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).Carthamus tinctorius: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Oil from the seed (SAFFLOWER OIL) is an important food oil of commerce.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Tanacetum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Some species of the CHRYSANTHEMUM and the old Pyrethrum genera have been reclassified to this genus. The common name of tansy usually refers to this but also forms part of the common name of other plants such as Tansy Ragwort (SENECIO) and Tansyaster (HAPLOPAPPUS).Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Wedelia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone and wedeloside.Apomixis: Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.Flaveria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.Burseraceae: A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).