Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.HydrocarbonsTetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Prolyl Hydroxylases: Enzymes that specifically hydroxylate PROLINE residues on proteins.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedBenzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.Aldehyde Oxidase: An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chloracne: ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Steroids, Fluorinated: Steroids which are substituted with one or more fluorine atoms in any position.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Jaw Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Methylococcus: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Steroids, Chlorinated: Steroids which are substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicVon Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein: A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Hydrocarbons, Alicyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)PhenanthrenesHydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Azo CompoundsLiver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Smoke25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Benzene DerivativesReceptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Steroids, Brominated: Steroids which are substituted with one or more bromine atoms in any position.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.p-Aminoazobenzene: Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Mice, Inbred DBAChromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Pharmacognosy: The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.Antrodia: A genus of brown-rot fungi in the family Coriolaceae. The biologically active ingredients of its species have potential pharmaceutical value.CarbanilidesGlutaratesToluene: A widely used industrial solvent.