Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Croton: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. The common name of dragon's blood is also used for DRACAENA and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE). Croton tiglium is the source of CROTON OIL.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.AccidentsMice, Inbred C57BLHead Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
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