Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Aporphines: Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Benzylisoquinolines: ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.Delphinium: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.Solanaceous Alkaloids: Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.Berberine: An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Coptis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.Rutaceae: A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ergotism: Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.Lycopodium: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.Ergotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Lysergic AcidPapaver: A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Ephedra: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.Belladonna Alkaloids: Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Aspidosperma: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It contains ellipticine.Papaveraceae: The poppy plant family of the order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. These have bisexual, regular, cup-shaped flowers with one superior pistil and many stamens; 2 or 3 conspicuous, separate sepals and a number of separate petals. The fruit is a capsule. Leaves are usually deeply cut or divided into leaflets.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Uncaria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Veratrum Alkaloids: Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Epichloe: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Mitragyna: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.Harmaline: A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.Ibogaine: One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Corydalis: A plant genus of the family FUMARIACEAE (classified by some in PAPAVERACEAE) that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ephedra sinica: A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Indolizidines: Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.IndolizinesQuinolizinesAtropa belladonna: A plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.Strychnos: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).Thalictrum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.Noscapine: A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.Alstonia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoidsLupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Veratrum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.Tabernaemontana: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Evodia: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE which is used in Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL). Evodiamine and other quinazoline alkaloids (QUINAZOLINES) are obtained from the fruit of E. ruticarpa.Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromaticLauraceae: A family of mainly aromatic evergreen plants in the order Laurales. The laurel family includes 2,200 species in 45 genera and from these are derived medicinal extracts, essential oils, camphor and other products.Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Peganum: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Harmala and other ALKALOIDS, phenylpropanoids, and TRITERPENES have been found in plants of this genus.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.PhenanthridinesPlant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Erythroxylaceae: A plant family of the order Linales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the coca plant.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Tylophora: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain phenanthro-indolizidine alkaloids.Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.Stemonaceae: A small plant family of the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Huperzia: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain huperzine, one of the CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS.Cissampelos: A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Chelidonium: A plant genus in the family PAPAVERACEAE, order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Acridones: Compounds based on acridone, which have three linear rings, with the center ring containing a ring nitrogen and a keto oxygen opposite to each other. Many of them are naturally occurring alkaloids.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Gelsemium: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Harringtonines: Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.Tomatine: An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Lycoris: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain radiatine, vittatine, haemanthamine, lycorenine, dihydrolycorine, lycorine, lycoricidinol and lycoricidine.Cryptocarya: A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain cryptofolione, caryachine, grandisin and other compounds. Some PEUMUS species have been reclassified as CRYPTOCARYA.Hydrastis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cephaelis: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE, order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae. Cephaelis ipecacuanha is the source of IPECAC.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.Agelas: A genus of large, brightly colored SPONGES in the family Agelasidae, possessing a skeleton of spongin fibers with a core of large spicules (megascleres).Ipomoea: A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Crinum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains ALKALOIDS.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).PhenanthrenesNelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Fritillaria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.Murraya: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.Menispermaceae: A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Thebaine: A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Ellipticines: Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Strychnos nux-vomica: A plant genus of the genus STRYCHNOS, family LOGANIACEAE that is the source of STRYCHNINE.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Piper: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that includes species used for spicy and stimulating qualities.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Eschscholzia: A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Omasum: The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)QuinolinesCinchona: A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Pilocarpus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE that is the natural source of PILOCARPINE.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Paullinia: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)