Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Abortion, Criminal: Illegal termination of pregnancy.Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Abortion Applicants: Individuals requesting induced abortions.Abortion, Missed: The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.Abortion, Septic: Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Abortion, Threatened: UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.Animal DiseasesAbortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Abortion, Incomplete: Premature loss of PREGNANCY in which not all the products of CONCEPTION have been expelled.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Abortifacient Agents, Steroidal: Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.Animal Technicians: Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Pregnancy, Unplanned: Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pregnancy, Unwanted: Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.Vacuum Curettage: Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Anatomy, Veterinary: The study of the anatomical structures of animals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Pets: Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Bonding, Human-Pet: The emotional attachment of individuals to PETS.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Reproductive Rights: Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Dilatation and Curettage: Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Animals, LaboratoryPregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Parental Notification: Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Contraceptive Devices: Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.United StatesLife: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Staphylococcus intermedius: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It is a zoonotic organism and common commensal in dogs, but can cause disease in dogs and other animals. It also can be associated with human disease.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Psittacosis: Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.DairyingXylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Chlamydophila psittaci: A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Zolazepam: A pyrazolodiazepinone with pharmacological actions similar to ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS. It is commonly used in combination with TILETAMINE to obtain immobilization and anesthesia in animals.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Foot Rot: A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Chlamydophila: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).BerlinSulfamethazine: A sulfanilamide anti-infective agent. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial action similar to other sulfonamides.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Arcanobacterium: A genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family ACTINOMYCETACEAE, order ACTINOMYCETALES. They are obligate parasites of the PHARYNX in humans and farm animals.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Veterinary Service, Military: A corps of the armed services concerned with animal medicine, the chief interest of which is the care of government-owned working dogs (as in the military police units), working horses (as in state funerals), and working military dolphins (as in undersea exploration and other activities). In the United States Army Veterinary Corps animal medicine overlaps and interconnects with biomedical research using laboratory research animals. A related activity is laboratory animal care. The Corps provides limited care for privately owned animals of military personnel through non-appropriated funds. Military service veterinarians in the United States Army must be graduates of accredited veterinary schools and must have a state license. (Telephone communication with Lt. Col. William Inskeep II, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps, October 4, 1994)Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Contraception, Postcoital: Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).Nebramycin: A complex of antibiotic substances produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Veterinary Sports Medicine: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with PHYSICAL FITNESS of animals in sports (horse racing, dog racing, etc.) and the diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries in animals.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Tick Control: Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.DenmarkUterine Perforation: A hole or break through the wall of the UTERUS, usually made by the placement of an instrument or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Nurses, Male: Nurses of the male sex.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.ItalyFatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.