Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Splenic DiseasesTesticular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Testicular Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Renal Colic: A severe intermittent and spasmodic pain in the lower back radiating to the groin, scrotum, and labia which is most commonly caused by a kidney stone (RENAL CALCULUS) passing through the URETER or by other urinary track blockage. It is often associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, restlessness, dull pain, frequent urination, and HEMATURIA.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lymphangioma, Cystic: A cystic growth originating from lymphatic tissue. It is usually found in the neck, axilla, or groin.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Prostatic Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.Rectal Diseases: Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Abdominal NeoplasmsWrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Goiter: Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Rectal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Gestational Sac: Round-shaped structure usually located in the upper fundus of the UTERUS in early pregnancy. It comprises EMBRYO; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and YOLK SAC. It is visible in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY by the fifth week of pregnancy. Its size is often used to determine and monitor GESTATIONAL AGE; FETAL GROWTH; and PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Parathyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional: Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Angiomyolipoma: A benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements. It occurs most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements (angiolipoleiomyoma) in association with tuberous sclerosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)