Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Teaching Rounds: Systematic discussions and teaching relating to patient care.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)History of MedicineGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.ManikinsCompetency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Hospitals, AnimalAcademic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Great BritainEthicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)United StatesProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Hospitalists: Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.EnglandMedical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.LondonOnline Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Awards and PrizesEducation, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Nursing Education Research: Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.IndiaOutpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Education, Nursing, Graduate: Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.BrazilReinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
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